Raised In The South By The Benedictine Monks At St. Bernards Abbey
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When the clergy and Catholic laymen in France and Germany, when Mr. Pugin and the Romanists of England, labour with all their might to save and restore the monuments of their faith,—unworthily set aside by the influence of that fatal spirit which broke out with the so-called reformation, and concluded with the French revolution,—they know that they are labouring at the same time to strengthen, in an indirect manner, their own faith and practice, which are exactly and identically the same as those followed by the constructors of those glorious piles, and by all the artists of the Catholic ages: and this object sanctifies their labour.
A few years after the conclusion of Pugin's work at Mount Saint Bernard, its patron, Phillipps, wrote to Montalembert: "A new Monastery on a larger scale and of true continental type and architecture has been built. Pugin a, p. The first edition of Contrasts was published by Pugin in Information on Pugin's journeys in France and England is taken from the diary transcriptions found in Wedgwood Wedgwood , p.
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Pugin's diary entry for the day reads: "At Garendon set out for Monastery. Pugin who did not arrive [un]til 9 o'clock. He showed his designs for the Monastery and Birmingham Cathedral. Pugin marked the foundations with his builder Myers. Stanton , p. As Stanton points out, if the figures in the foreground of figure 7 provide a measure, then Pugin was illustrating the church with a roof almost as high as that of the nave of Salisbury Cathedral. This, however, is not the case, as the height of an interior wall is only thirty-four feet. Pugin b, p.
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For drawings of spires and towers Pugin used as source material see Pugin , pp. Pugin also completed designs for Downside Abbey, a Benedictine community in Somerset, England, and an unnamed priory for the Passionists, an imported Italian order, in Woodchester Park, England. For more information on Downside Abbey, see O'Donnell Lord Shrewsbury gave 3, pounds for the completion of the abbey.
Miller , p. For more information on Phillipps de Lisle, see Purcell and Pawley Purcell , vol.
The archives of Mount Saint Bernard Abbey contain a memento of this day in the form of a branch saved in an envelope. The inscription on the envelope reads: "Branch of the great yew Tree at Fountains Abbey under which the Cistercian Monks dwelt for above a year, whilst the Monastery was being built. Gathered by my beloved friend and Brother in our Lord, Charles, Count de Montalembert, when we visited those old ruins together on St. Aloysisus's day June 21, , signed by me - Ambrose Lisle Phillipps. Guest book of Mount Saint Bernard Abbey, vol. Mount Saint Bernard Abbey Archives.
Anglicans also visited the abbey. For more information on Rio and Christian art, see Lightbown , pp. And some fell upon the rock: and as soon as it was sprung up it withered away because it had no moisture.
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And some fell among thorns, and the thorns growing up with it choked. And some fell upon good ground: and sprung up and yielded fruit a hundred fold. Gospel of St. The monks of St. Bernard's Abbey, Leicester, gathering the harvest of The boys in the adjoining field are from the Reformatory under the care of these Religious. Errington , p. Pugin's diary indicates a meeting with Herbert on 8 November After it is clearly evident that Herbert was spending the Christmas holidays each year with the Pugin family at their home in Ramsgate. In Herbert painted Pugin's portrait and exhibited it at the Royal Academy.
All the Year Round was the continuation of Household Words. Dickens ended the latter publication because of problems with his publisher. Italics in original. Editor's Welcome.
Citation: Victoria M. When last checked the page no longer existed at its original location. Young Fig. Mount Saint Bernard Abbey —44 was the first monastery elevated to abbey status since the Reformation and for this reason alone, its importance in the history of architecture and religion in England is secured fig. The abbey was, however, much more than an English phenomenon; it was a manifestation of a European Catholic sensibility in architecture.
Its architect traveled extensively to Europe to study medieval architecture, and the abbey's patron, Ambrose Phillipps de Lisle — , was encouraged and supported by Catholics throughout the Continent. This international spirit in religious design signifies the possibility of a new paradigm through which to view Gothic revival architecture in the nineteenth century.
The example of Mount Saint Bernard Abbey goes beyond the idea of the Gothic as a national style and promotes a multinational Catholic revival of Gothic architecture, fostered by a group of concordant Romanists who embraced the international medieval institution of the monastery.
Pugin began this commitment to a Christian life at the age of twenty-three, with his conversion to Catholicism on 6 June From then on his writing and architecture had one goal: the promotion of Gothic revival architecture as the only true Christian architecture. In his Contrasts of , he observes: "Pointed architecture has far higher claims on our admiration than mere beauty or antiquity; the former may be regarded as a matter of opinion, the latter, in the abstract, is no proof of excellence, but in it alone we find the faith of Christianity embodied, and its practices illustrated.
The frontispiece of his An Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture depicts the Abbey of Mount Saint Bernard in the upper right-hand corner of twenty-four of his church and chapel designs fig. Pugin's publication of his architectural designs and theories served as a sort of Catholic propaganda. The drawings and written description of the abbey, first published in the February issue of the Dublin Review , also provide the only account of his motivations for the design of the abbey complex. A gifted draftsman, Pugin spent a great deal of time sketching medieval buildings in England and on the Continent; these visits enabled him to maintain his drawing skills and provided him with ideas for his own designs.
British architects of Pugin's generation generally traveled to the medieval buildings of England for design inspiration and drawing practice; the architects of the following generation, men such as William Burges and George Edmund Street, looked away from England to the Continent.
Raised in the South: By the Benedictine Monks at St. Bernard's Abbey
Pugin first visited France with his father in , and he returned nearly every year until his death in Several of the French monasteries Pugin visited were still working abbeys, which allowed him to witness firsthand the translation of a medieval institution into the nineteenth century, while those he saw in England lay in ruin and could only have impressed upon him their picturesque qualities and the outlines of their plans. His notions about the appropriate architecture were in accordance with the rules laid down for Cistercian art and architecture in the early days of the order.
The Cistercian reform of the Benedictine Rule had been the first to include architectural provisions among its statutes, presenting them in the Summa Cartae Caritatis in These requirements gave Cistercian architecture a dignity, stability, and austerity that resonated with the stern and unbending rule of the founders of the order. Discussion concerning plans for the abbey—between its patron, Ambrose Phillipps de Lisle, and Pugin—began before August Pugin completed the abbey's design from January and presented the plans to Phillipps at his nearby home, Grace-Dieu, on 15 January figs.
Phillipps was impressed with Pugin's work, describing the buildings as a "beautiful ornament to Catholicity. More important to Pugin, however, was early English simplicity as a reflection of the Trappists using the complex: The severe lancet windows, deeply arched doorways, steeply pitched roofs, thick walls, and minimal decoration, combined with the material used, the massiveness of the architecture, and the stillness of the place and presence of the religious, clad in the venerable habits of the order, allowed the mind to be forcibly carried back to the days of England's faith.
Pugin, Ancient roof framing systems. Bury Saint Edmunds at lower right.
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Pugin  b, p. Pugin completed the western portion of the church left of the tower and the cloister area attached to it. Between and architect Albert Herbert of Leicester added the transepts, tower, and eastern nave. Pugin's son, Edward Welby Pugin, completed the octagonal chapter house south of the tower transept in Atterbury and Wainwright , p.
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Pugin intended the columns to be nine feet in circumference and decorated with foliated capitals, but only circular abaci ornamented them in the finished product. These columns span undecorated double-chamfered arched openings. The flat unornamented walls lead up to Pugin's timber roof completed with diagonal scissor bracing of the principal members, reflective of English medieval precedent at the abbey of Bury Saint Edmunds, as drawn by Pugin in The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture figs.
Pugin discussed the design of the rood in his description of the church: The arrangement of the rood screen is quite correct for a monastic church; the depth of the arches under which the altars are placed, is considerable; and, with the staircases, this loft will occupy one bay of the nave in width; above the screen, the rood will be fixed with the appropriate images, all richly painted and gilt….
Mount Saint Bernard was the only one of the three abbeys designed by Pugin to be partially completed. Henry-Russell Hitchcock labeled the abbey "simple and crude" and believed "the less said about it architecturally the better. Abbot Palmer wrote of his joy to one of the abbey's patrons, Lady Shrewsbury, whose husband, the sixteenth Earl of Shrewsbury, was a leading Catholic layman and responsible for providing a great sum of money for its completion: "And when I see our beautiful church raised by your generous hands in which we can chant the praises of God day and night.
Oh then I am filled with such sentiments of gratitude as I trust time and eternity will never efface. The abbey not only portrayed their image in Protestant England but it was also a sign to an international group of Catholics of the strength of the revival transpiring there. Its founder and patron, Ambrose Phillipps de Lisle, was English and possessed the necessary qualities for a victorious revival of monasticism, including a solid British ancestry tracing back to William the Conqueror and a decent income—from , a yearly allowance of pounds from his father.
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Phillipps would later be praised by Lady Arundel, a member of the leading Catholic family in England, for "restoring monasticism and boldly bringing the Catholic religion into open view, at a time when others had not the courage or generosity of these things. In addition to his French responsibilities, Montalembert was deeply interested in English Catholicism.
Like Phillipps, Montalembert believed that the culmination of order and prosperity in society was embodied in the monastery. For them, a monastic society was a true community, where social and moral frameworks were clearly defined and each member knew his role and his relationship to God and Christian principles. He wrote to Montalembert not long after their first meeting: Depend upon it there is a Xtian renaissance at work now, the fruits of which in about a century will be truly glorious all over the world. The Reception of Mount Saint Bernard Abbey Having visited the abbey site before construction of Pugin's design in , Montalembert finally saw the completed buildings during a June visit with Phillipps.
I trust I shall go there once more with you.
dousertoma.tk This rejuvenation of the monastic order was important to high-ranking officials of the faith in all countries. Henri Dominique Lacordaire, the noted French liberal Dominican preacher, came to the abbey on 9 March Rio was the first to popularize in England and France the originally German idea that there could be a specifically Christian interpretation of art. Oil on canvas.